2016年9月16日 星期五

機器取代人力之變革與應有的因應措施

從遠通 ETC 來聊聊人力被機器取代,此類科技變革對社會的衝擊,與應該有的因應措施。

理想中用機器替代重複性工作的人力,不光是為了節省成本,也是為了解放人力,讓人能有餘暇做更多事,而不是為了把人淘汰掉。但是在這個過程中,勢必會有很多人受到衝擊。我們該力求的應該是能在轉換過程中,用節省下來的成本保障被替代的人。

收費員這件事最好的處理方式,是拿機器省下來的成本來協助安置這些人,幫他們找出處;第二好的做法是用機器省下來的成本來補貼這些人,讓他們自己找出路。遠通偏偏選了用「按照合約做一個安置的動作」來應付。

科技發展帶來的破壞性變革,對整個社會衝擊極大,一定要趁早小心應對。現在社會中還有太多純粹機械式,沒有創意性的工作,都會開始受到相關衝擊。更別說 AI 已經發展到連隨機性高、創意性高的工作也有能力執行了。

就像是可見的未來五到十年內,計程車一定會被自駕車取代,我們應該不想等到該時,再用「是你自己不早想到要轉行」的態度來面對這群司機,而是現在就該開始規劃相關政策,來趁早因應了。

現在聲援收費員,也是聲援未來被取代的自己啊。

至於該怎麼做,才能讓社會成功從目前的樣子,過渡到那個每個人都能自由發揮的世界?我是覺得把機器創造出來的生產剩餘,抽來重新分配給人們作為「無條件基本收入」是一個可行的方案(且世界各地都開始有人在提倡實驗了)。

不過這需要有很強的社會跟政府執行力。在台灣能不能成功,我還蠻悲觀的。

原討論串: 噗浪1噗浪2FB
延伸閱讀:無條件基本收入 - 維基百科

2016年9月1日 星期四

炎上的金萱字型釋出記事

本文採創用 CC 姓名標示-非商業性 3.0 台灣授權釋出。非商業性質歡迎自取使用,需標明作者「Irvin」及本文網址。商業媒體轉載或報導,請務必來訊取得授權(Telegram 搜索 @Irvin)。

最新資訊

稍早(2016/9/2)justfont 已公佈將會提供押入用戶識別的字形檔,讓贊助者直接下載使用,可喜可賀,大家按個讚↓

== 以下為本文於 9/1 晚上發佈,至 9/2 中午最後修改之原文 ==

justfont 歹勢啦

先跟 justfont 的朋友們說聲不好意思,本文就事論事。對於你們手造台灣好字的堅持,我完全不改崇敬。大家交情依然。

釋出才是炎上的開始

在 2015/10 創下台灣群募紀錄,近九千三百人贊助,以超出原定目標 17 倍的成果,集資近兩仟六百萬開發的「金萱」字型,昨天(2016/8/31)終於出貨了,但是出貨才是炎上的開始。

下載器下載好氣

金萱採用近年流行的字體管理程式模式,贊助者下載時,需先安裝特別開發的「justfont store」字體管理程式,才能下載安裝字型。

❍ 字體簿找不到這套字型。
→ 金萱字型是由程式進行安裝的,不會出現在字體簿裡面,但安裝完成後,可以使用在包括Word / Execel / illastrator 等軟體內皆可正常使用。

雖然 Adobe 的 Typekit (Creative Cloud)Google Font(Skyfont)也是採用此模式,但與上述兩者有一點很不同:Adobe CC 或 Skyfont 下載安裝字型後,可不需開啟常駐程式,仍可正常使用安裝好的字型,但 justfont store 需時時開啟,才可正常使用金萱字型。

除此限制外,justfont store 目前問題真的不少:Mac 版需 OS X 10.11.3 才可正常使用、Windows 版完全無法下載字型……最離譜的是,在 Mac 上,就算已經正常下載好字體,但 Adobe 系列軟體看不到也用不到(是已知的 bug,相信 justfont 很快就會解決)。

然後 Mac 上那個常駐的下載器,對比其他程式都走黑色系,顏色實在很突兀,不美啊…

“常駐程式”

最後,根據今日(9/1)收到的說明信件,Linux 完全被放棄了。

❍ 是否有支援 linux 版本?
→ 目前以支援 Windows/MAC 為主,Linux 因版本非常多,目前還沒有支援的規劃,如果您沒有可以安裝的Windows/MAC電腦,可以寫信給我們,我們會退費給您。

實體光碟

“贊助方案”

贊助方案中包含一片實體光碟,有些人認為說,無法正常下載沒關係,等實體光碟總行了吧。

另外實際的光碟內容,與線上取得的內容會是相同的,光碟內容包括安裝程式,安裝說明書以及調理指南

晴天霹靂的是,光碟裡面也不會有字型檔,只會有安裝程式… #是要拿來當擺飾嗎

DRM 與不到一天的保護效力

❍ 為什麼不直接提供字型檔,用傳統方式安裝
→ 金萱字型預計在 2017年10月完成3分糖版本,到2018年10月完成7分糖版本,完成後將會自動出現在您的授權列表字型中。
→ 金萱這套字型有承諾後續會增加贊助者姓名的異體字,以及替換字符的功能,都會以自動更新方式處理。
→ 可以做較好的字型版權保護,也保障正版購買者的權益。

其實金萱會選擇這種方式釋出,也不是很難了解。除勉強可說得上是優點的「自動更新」之外,講白了就是想防盜版而已。

跟現在常見的 DRM 電子書與電子雜誌等應用不同,字型本就是很難版權保護的東西。電子書廠商可針對書本身加密,再讓用戶透過專用閱讀程式來看;但字型為了要讓不同作業系統上的萬千種軟體都可正常使用,無法對檔案格式本身加上保護(不然就會像現在發生 Adobe 軟體認不出金萱的狀況)。一旦用戶取得該字體的 ttf 或 otf 檔案,就可隨意複製流傳,原作者相對完全無能為力。

無論如何,安裝程式還是得要下載解開正常的字型檔到電腦中,再運用某種方法讓作業系統能辨認到。Adobe CC 與 Skyfont 都很乾脆的直接將字型檔放入作業系統的 font 資料夾,除亂數檔名外沒有其他保護。相對的,justfont store 推測則是以動態連結的方式,讓作業系統在 store 程式開啟時,才能辨認出金萱,讓一般應用程式取用。

各平台取得字型檔的方式

有鑑於以上特性,想要透過特定程式來保護字型,幾乎無法做到。事實上,在釋出後不到一天內,也已經有網友在噗浪上提供 Mac 與 Linux 上取出與下載字型的方法了。

#既然無法有效保護,又何必集贊助者怒氣

相信講到這裡,很多人都會聯想到 Windows 上「你可能已經成為正版軟體的受害者」,或者幾年前台灣單機遊戲廠商愛用的 starfuck 保護程式,讓正版用戶不能玩,反而需要上線找免光碟、抓硬碟版等不如歸去玩盜版的景況。

此一階段會用到金萱的人,都是當初願意投資、贊助金萱開發的忠實支持者。搞個 DRM 措施讓大家用的這麼不開心,結果只有半天的防盜效力,真的有必要嗎?如果學學微軟與 BSA,換種角度將盜版當作是最有效的宣傳(與營利)管道,能不能反過來創造更高的商業利益?

好棒棒的 Social DRM 不用嗎

其實還是有比較合理的 DRM 措施。以電子書廠商為例,有些廠商其實不限制讀者複製分享書籍,而是採用在頁面上加上浮水印、版權頁標示購買者姓名等方式,以抑制無斷分享的行為,讓「共享」能限制在親朋好友間使用,把被拷貝的內容轉成「最有效的宣傳媒介」。

此一方法稱作「Social DRM」,也是我原本認為金萱會採用的方式。

丟個「盜字體者公司客戶天天改需求」的留言出去,會比下 DRM 還要管用——@Pichu

既然字型檔本身無法避免複製,不如將個別贊助者的名稱資訊等寫入字型檔中,讓用戶了解「請不要任意分享給他人」。同時還能分析線上的盜版檔案,找出是那一位購買者流出的。

雖然只要透過 FontForge 等軟體就能輕易避開此一限制,但 DRM 本就只是防君子不防小人,仰賴的是用戶的良心與愛護。如果能毅然決然放棄現在已證實無效的安裝器,改採此法,或許能激起更多贊助者的熱情,也能一舉兩得,同時實踐募資承諾呢。(請繼續看下去)

募資承諾要記得

除 DRM 問題外,在金萱的募資頁上,有以下「您的大名在此出現」的承諾。

#可是阿煩,在這裡你找不到字體

根據網友提供的方法抓出來的字型檔裡,其實也只列出了贊助者清單的網頁連結。(雖然我不認為列出九千人的姓名三萬多字是合邏輯的方法,但是承諾就是承諾…)

開源領域等著你

在 2015/9/9 的募資進度報告中,金萱團隊也曾提到將運用資源,貢獻開源領域等語:

除了將舉行至少 50 場的字型講座與製作紀錄片以外,也將導入更多字型設計的教育資源,……將從改善既有開源字型如「思源黑體」或「花園明朝體」為起點,打造一套品質更佳的開源中文字型對外釋出……

開源字型開發者與付費字型創作者的理念是殊途同歸的,都是為了更好的字型環境而努力。除了積極參與並協助開源社群……

我了解金萱以相對小型的團隊,挑戰這麼大規模的專案(目前已造 14,157 字),同時間還得巡迴各地舉辦講座等回饋活動,的確非常辛苦。

但,既然受了這麼多人的支持,也自願做出了以上承諾,請務必記得以上承諾,開源社群都是非常單純的工程師,大家都是十分期待的

正如 Bobby Ho 所說的,「俺買的不是字,俺買的是愛臺灣的心 <3」

2016年8月9日 星期二

3 different types of participation - TW Mozillians in HKOSCon from 2014-2016

Last month in 6/24-26, several MozTW community members flied to Hong Kong visited HKOSCon, Hong Kong Open Source Conference. This is our 3rd time joining the event, and we had tried 3 different forms of participation, here I would like to share a bit about it.

HKOSCon

Hong Kong Open Source Conference is annual open source conference in Hong Kong, co-hosted by 3 communities, HKCOTA, HKLUG and Open Source Hong Kong.

One of the event's characteristic is that HKOSCon is formed by volunteers and students, not by for-profit company (which is pretty similar to COSCUP, another open source conference in Taiwan).

Actually, according to one of the funder (and Mozilla Rep) Sammy Fung said, we can think it as a smaller (around 500 ppls) and more internationalized (English-based) version of COSCUP, which have around 2k participants and use Chinese as main language.

According to my observation, participants in HKOSCon is a combination of local (Hong Kong) enginners and students, speakers and students from Taiwan, and foreign speakers.

2014 - Chinese Mozillians Unite

Booth and Forum Session

2014 (March 29) is our first time to participating in HKOSCon. We tried to gather 8 Reps from Hong Kong (2), Taiwan (3) and China (3) together in the conference. We host a typical Mozilla community booth, a forum (“Mozilla communities in Chinese-speaking regions”) and a private meetup to discuss various topics about building Mozilla communities in the region.

Hong Kong is a special place that is 1) accessable by people from both Taiwan and China, without many political problems and limitations, 2) use both Chinese / English as primary language, and 3) close to all major east-Asian cities, so it's pretty pratical to be choosen as the place that we all gathered. I also experience that Wikimania 2013 (took place in Hong Kong Polytechnic University) also take the advantage to gathered many China / Taiwan contributors. Singapore has similar advantages but it just 4 times far away for us.

What worked and what didn't?

The idea of unite the Mozillians from different places really works, and I believed that we need to do it more (re-engage MozCamp perhaps?) But next time if we want to take HKOSCon as a chance, we may need to plan a whole dedicated day for Mozillian meetup, to work longer besides participating inside confernece, to get into more detailed discussion. (which may look similar to Leadership Summit and MozCamp beta in India?)

Here is my debrief about our participation in HKOSCon 2014,

2015 - Involved more Taiwanese Mozillians

Booth and Workshop

In 2015 (June 26-27), we take a different approach that bring more Taiwanese Mozillian to get involved to HKOSCon. Total 7 Mozillians (5 Reps) joined. This year we also focus our most effort on the booth, and I personally host a Webmaker workshop.

The theme of the booth is FoxYeah campaign, we asked people to take selfie photos with 5 FoxYeah banners and received stickers. Most participants already know Firefox and was our user, so we would like to recall their attention back to the core value of Firefox.

For the Webmaker workshop, due to the design of the room and session length, it's not really work out well. Also I feel that Webmaker is not really suitable for this developer-focus conference participants that it just too simple.

What worked and what didn't?

Designing a more interactive booth event worked really good, we had interacting with many graceful people at the booth, and got more then 40 “FoxYeah photos”.

Webmaker workshop which focus on education and entering level of contributors not work. The main participants of HKOSCon are more engineer based (far more then COSCUP) and we need our workshop to be more technical for them.

Here is my debrief about our participation in HKOSCon 2015, you can also find the link of articles from other participants inside.

2016 - Just focus on session

This year, due to overwhelmed workload after London Allhands, I didn't pay as much planning effot as previous 2 years that can involved many participants together. Instead, I try just to focus on session, and keep it simple that only 3 TW Mozillians joined and gave 2 sessions, debrief my journey of contributing in Mozilla and yajs.vim, JavaScript syntax highlight for VIM by Othree, another speaker from TW community*.

Besides sessions from the community volunteer, there are another 2 from Mozilla paid-staff - Mozilla Eir, connecting device topic by Kevin Hu and Fuzzing testing by Gary Kwong.

What worked and what didn't?

Because that we didn't set a booth, it's hard to evaluate how many attendees is interesting in participating Mozilla this time (compare to the previous 2 years that we had contributing forms at our booth).

But the Fuzzing and Othree's HTML5-related sessions, as well as my session did attach many people and I can feel overall better response then last year's workshop. Another reason of the better atmosphere at sessions may due to several OSS participating-related sessions had been organized next each other in schedule, and thus attached the right audiences.

And suggestion for the future...

From our previous experiences, here I come up with some suggestions for next year,

  1. Bring in more foreign technical speakers

    There are more developers in HKOSCon that is interesting in technical topics, engineering speaker can have better interaction in HKOSCon, things like “how we use Rust” or “How do we do Firefox release engineering” should do well there.

  2. Booth is necessery

    With only session, it's hard for us to interaction with all partcipants, booth does that well. Besides giving out stickers and demonstrating hardware / flyers, plan a simple event such as FoxYeah photo campaign in 2015 will please everyone.

  3. 7~10 Mozillians is good numbers for participation

    We had around 10 Mozillians (excludes local HK Mozillians which are all dedicated to run HKOSCon) in both 2014 and 2015 HKOSCon, 5~7 of them are volunteers. It's enough to both manage a booth and give 3 to 5 sessions with this numbers, and the rate of Mozillians to all participants would be around 2%.

2016年6月17日 星期五

The different kinds of (Mozilla) community spaces and it’s pathway

This is part of the result we found from the “How might we (re)invent existing and future MozSpace to run innivation experiments”, which we address different kinds of community space at the community space session on Mozilla AllHands 2016 in London.

(see original draft poster from our discussion)

The characteristic

There are different types of spaces with various characteristic, eg.

  • # of core contributors
  • scale of community
  • # of non-Mozilla communities involved
  • meeting / event frequency
  • density of the region / distence of the contributors (transit difficulties)
  • resource invest from Mozilla and community

Different type of spaces

Following is the space various in different type that we found in our expereinces and in different region, it may be a of community space (and probably also same for the community meeting).

Temporary (in time & venue) spaces

  • Online space (forum / IM / IRC channels)
  • Kitchen (or school) table
  • Meet in coffee house
  • Hackathon & sprint in private apartment / meeting venue
  • Partnership with co-working space (eg., The Hub)
  • Cooperating / supporting existing hackerspace / makerspace

Physically communtiy space

  • Mozilla Community Spaces, eg., Taipei, Manila & Jakarta
  • Space inside Mozilla office

Online space (forum / IM / IRC channels)

It was begin when some people who is interesting in promoting Mozilla and it’s various products gathering and meet online.

  • # of core contributors - 2~20
  • scale of community - 5~150
  • there will be much harder more then this numbers
  • # of non-Mozilla communities involved - 0
  • meeting / event frequency - variously
  • distence of the contributors - withing country / same languages area
  • resource invest from Mozilla and community - minimin

Kitchen (or school) Table

Some people may want to meet face-by-face hacking / discussing frequenly

  • # of core contributors - 2~3
  • scale of community - 2~5
  • # of non-Mozilla communities involved - 0
  • meeting / event frequency - various from weekly to monthly
  • distence of the contributors - closly, within city
  • resource invest from Mozilla and community - minimum

Meet in coffee house

If there are more contributors within in the city, they may able to meet weekly / bi-weekly / monthly and maybe more leisure with loose agenda ccording to the meeting frequency

  • # of core contributors - 5~10
  • scale of community - 5~30
  • # of non-Mozilla communities involved - some randemly
  • meeting / event frequency - weekly to monthly
  • density of the region / distence of the contributors - within city
  • resource invest from Mozilla and community - small, mainly a cup of coffee

Private apartment / meeting venue

When more contributors focus on some contirbuting regions, they will run some hackathon / design sprint periodically

  • # of core contributors - 5~15
  • scale of community - 10~100
  • # of non-Mozilla communities involved - 0
  • meeting / event frequency - quatyly / 6 months / yearly
  • density of the region / distence of the contributors - within country
  • resource invest from Mozilla and community - medium each time

Partnership with co-working space (eg., The Hub)

If there are some contributors or remoties work more frequenly and host more events, they may want to find a permanently / half-permanently space. We find that sometimes there are good cooperating and supporting from local co-working space.

  • # of core contributors - 3~10
  • scale of community - 20~
  • # of non-Mozilla communities involved - some
  • meeting / event frequency - daily, bi-daily, weekly
  • density of the region / distence of the contributors - within city
  • resource invest from Mozilla and community - small/medium monthly

Cooperating with existing hackerspace / makerspace

Similar to the above co-working space, there may be some hackerspace / makerspace already exist and in good align with Mozilla’s mission, the community may like to join or get involved the venue.

We should have some application procedure at this stage, for communities who is interesting in get into next stage of pathway.

  • # of core contributors - 3~10
  • scale of community - 20~
  • # of non-Mozilla communities involved - more then 2
  • meeting / event frequency - daily, bi-daily, weekly
  • density of the region / distence of the contributors - within city
  • resource invest from Mozilla and community - small/medium monthly

Physical Community Space

After all this stage, the community now has more people and frequenly events and many meetups, they may want to get their own community spaces in order to better hosting and contributing.

The most important thing in this stage is that besides benefit Mozilla community, we want to also help / support other communities within the region, in order to better using the resource, and they most probably also under their early stage of this pathway.

# of core contributors - 10~20 scale of community - 50~ # of non-Mozilla communities involved - 10 and more meeting / event frequency - daily, bi-daily density of the region / distence of the contributors - within city resource invest from Mozilla and community - large monthly

Space inside Mozilla office

If we have more and more remoties working at Mozilla during the growth of the Mozilla community, eventually we will set up a Mozilla office inside the area. It will be similar to the community spaces and have good community-staff relationship if we follow and grow alone the path.

  • # of core contributors - 20~35
  • scale of community - 100~
  • # of non-Mozilla communities involved - 10 and more
  • meeting / event frequency - daily, bi-daily
  • density of the region / distence of the contributors - within city / country
  • resource invest from Mozilla and community - large monthly

The pathway (aka. A River of Spaces)

Above different kinds of space is a typical pathway we found in different communities and in our community's 10+ years experience. We had pass all of those stage (besides the office one), and some other communities may currently in one of the earlier stage.


A River of Spaces

It’s like the flow of the river from upper reach to the ocean, we can imaging the flow as the size of the community / the resource / the reach and the impact. Different communities are not necessery follow the same pathway but it should be somehow similer.

Thanks all of the Mozilla Community Space stewards in the session, especially Henrik, Gaspar, Nikos, Yofie who is in this discussion.

2016年1月10日 星期日

Mozilla, we had a little transparency problem

We put too less attention to  "Community driven development" and "Transparent" part of our core culture recent years.

Why is Focus stay so secret before Mozlando, even we NDA covered Mozillians know nothing about it before it on stage? How can "we" say something like "we will take Firefox OS ..." or "we will go..."  without we even knowing it before the news and before someone on stage make the notice? Why is there more and more secret and non-public future feature of Firefox that we cannot find plan anywhere (eg., that "stream" things), And why could we took down all l10n-ed part of Webmaker (and even change it's name to Mozilla Learning without we had any discussion, and so far we still don't know anything about it's future's l10n strategy?)

we, we, we, we, we. How can Mozilla talk about “we” when “we” don’t even know what’s going on? - Elio 
I'm pretty agree the echo from BobChao's comment to Elio's blog post. We had a serious problem here and we need a little more TRANSPARENT PROCEDURE to fix it, just as our manifesto indicated. "Transparent community-based processes promote participation, accountability and trust." And we does need some more participation now!